Learning Objectives

Through this course the students should be able to:

Explain different kinds of measurement of characteristics (types of variables), and sampling biases.

Illustrate, calculate, and interpret descriptive statistics (mean, median, variance, standard deviation) on numerical variables.

Explain and discuss the concept of probability, and relate to measures of critical value, confidence interval and pvalue. Understand the concept of inference.

Based on these concepts and measures, perform appropriate significance tests for the mean and for comparing means (for example average incomes by two groups).

Perform significance tests for proportions of values of categorical variables (fx. shares of votes in an election or preferences for various products), and for the association between two categorical variables (fx. gender and preferences).

Explain and illustrate the concept of correlation between numerical variables, and compute a correlation coefficient (for example between household income and spending on a specific product).

Explain the logic of regression analysis and explain the difference between correlation and regression analyses. Formulate and discuss adequate regression models for explaining phenomena.

Perform simple (linear and nonlinear) regression analyses, and further multivariate regression. Interpret regression coefficients (through standard errors, pvalues etc.) and the determination coefficient R2, and investigate residuals.

Include categorical (dummy) variables as explanatory variables.

Prerequisite

Students not enrolled in BSc in Business Administration & Service Management must document a level in English equal to TOEFL 575, and A level in mathematics equal to Danish level B

Examination

.


Methods III – Statistics and quantitative methods:

Assessment

Written Exam

Marking Scale

7step scale

Censorship

Internal examiners

Exam Period

Autumn Term

Aids

Please, see the detailed regulations below

Duration

4 Hours

• The written exam takes place on CBS computers • Graphs can be written by hand • Aids: Open book, but please note: • Students have access to their personal files (Sdrive on CBS network) • Students do NOT have access to Internet, Site Scape/ LEARN, and other services from CBS (except their personal Sdrive on CBS network) • Students are not allowed to bring personal electronic devices to the exam, except a nonprogrammable calculator. • Retake examinations and makeup examinations are subject to the same regulations as the ones noted above 

Course Content

The course address established statistical methods for representing and analyzing quantitativedata, primarily survey data. The focus is on application of methods, not on statistical theory. Students will learn how phenomena are measured statistically and what kind of conclusions statistical research can lead to. Also, students will learn how to perform these analyses. The statistical software is Microsoft Excel which allows for basic analyses and understanding, and Excel is common software immediately at hand.
Main modules composing the course are:
• Descriptive Statistics • Probability • Hypothesis Testing (on differentials in mean and proportions) • Correlation Analysis • Regression Analysis (the most extensive topic) 
Teaching Methods

Lectures and, extensive Homework Exercises.

Student Workload

Classes

30
hours

Reading and Homework exercises

140
hours

Preparation for written exam

55
hours


Literature

 Alan Agresti and Christine Franklin: ‘Statistics. The Art and Science of learning from Data’, 2^{nd} edition. Pearson Education International.
Chapters 1, 3, 4, and 613. Exclusive of sections 4.3 and 6.3. Section 13.6 is summary reading. 420 pages
 Notes on Excel statistical functions.15 pages (to be downloaded from Learn)
Please note, minor changes may occur. The teacher will upload the final reading list to Learn two weeks before the course starts. 