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2019/2020  KAN-CSOCV1030U  How design creates value

English Title
How design creates value

Course information

Language English
Course ECTS 7.5 ECTS
Type Elective
Level Full Degree Master
Duration One Quarter
Start time of the course Second Quarter
Timetable Course schedule will be posted at calendar.cbs.dk
Max. participants 80
Study board
Study Board for MSc in Social Sciences
Course coordinator
  • Tore Kristensen - Department of Marketing (Marketing)
Main academic disciplines
  • Customer behaviour
  • Innovation
  • Experience economy
Teaching methods
  • Face-to-face teaching
Last updated on 11-02-2019

Relevant links

Learning objectives
To achieve the grade 12, students must meet the listed learning objectives with no or minor mistakes:
  • Account for the core of design as the integral between problem-solving and meaning creation
  • Account for design aspects of theories of economics, aesthetics, psychology, ethnographics and cognitive science
  • Select and justify a proper theory to analyse objects, artefacts, environments and systems in a given case
  • Analyse and suggest managerial implications of the particular case situation
  • Reflect on alternative concepts and solutions
How design creates value:
Exam ECTS 7,5
Examination form Oral exam based on written product

In order to participate in the oral exam, the written product must be handed in before the oral exam; by the set deadline. The grade is based on an overall assessment of the written product and the individual oral performance.
Individual or group exam Oral group exam based on written group product
Number of people in the group 2
Size of written product Max. 10 pages
1 student write max. 5 standard pages, 2 students write max. 10 standard pages.
Assignment type Report
Written product to be submitted on specified date and time.
15 min. per student, including examiners' discussion of grade, and informing plus explaining the grade
Grading scale 7-point grading scale
Examiner(s) Internal examiner and second internal examiner
Exam period Winter
Make-up exam/re-exam
Same examination form as the ordinary exam
Re-take exam is to be based on the same report as the ordinary exam:
• If a student is absent from the oral exam due to documented illness but has handed in the written group product, she/he does not have to submit a new product for the re-take.
• If a whole group fails the oral exam they must hand in a revised product for the re-take.
• If one student in the group fails the oral exam the course coordinator chooses whether the student will have the oral exam on the basis of the same product or if he/she has to hand in a revised product for the re-take.
Description of the exam procedure

The written exam project has to be delivered before the oral exam. The project should depart from an issue or problem addressed in the course. The project should further explore the issue by adding new information, as additional theories or models or additional empirical data. For example, the students can detect and study a case by choice and discuss the case in relation to the theories and models that have been introduced. The course curriculum is mandatory, and the student should be able to discuss all aspects related to the course lectures and theories.


Oral defense: 1 student: 20 minutes, 2 students: 30 minutes.

Course content, structure and pedagogical approach


We are always surrounded by design – in our homes, when shopping, when visiting restaurants and when traveling. But the quality of designs differs. In this course we explore how design can add (or take away) value from user or customer experiences.  

Artefacts, objects, systems and services can influence and serve users in different ways depending on their personal values or taste, their needs and intentions, and their position within a particular environment. This indicates that users or customers judge a design solution on both emotional and functional values.

We will demonstrate various (qualitative and quantitative) approaches for studying user and customer reactions towards different design solutions. Based on this we will discuss how to use insights from consumer/user studies to improve business design strategies.

During the course we will consider a number of different values of design, for example, experiential values, symbolic values, commercial and economic values, hedonic values and sustainability. Tensions between opposing and often contradictory values will also be discussed.  

Course structure

The course will start by:

•        Identifying users and consumers

•        Identifying various aspects of design as objects, artefacts, systems, environments and experiences

•        Identifying the different values that design can create  

Different perspectives on value assessments will be addresses such as:

•        Experiential values

•        Symbolic values

•        Ethnographic values

•        Economic values

•        Aesthetical values

A number of theoretical paradigms will be introduced, such as:

•        Ethnography

•        Sociology

•        Psychology

•        Economic perspectives

•        Sustainability issues

Various methods to study consumer perception of design will be shown and exercised:

•        Observation studies – prepare for field trips (in Copenhagen)

•        Psychological methods (such as interviews)

•        Statistical and economic methods

•        Eye-tracking studies

•        Network approach

•        Case studies

Description of the teaching methods
A mix between:
• Lectures
• Case-based discussions
• Field-studies
• Content analysis of journal articles
• Small assignments that will support the learning objectives of the course and improve the analytical skills of students
• Practitioners and other professors in the area will be involved to provide a diverse range of theories and examples
Feedback during the teaching period
a) As comments on the student's proposals for written projects
b) Comments on the student's comments on other projects
c) Comments on the written project during the exam and expressed in the final grade
Student workload
Reading 50 hours
Lectures 30 hours
Fieldwork 50 hours
Analyses and reporting 20 hours
seminar and critique 56 hours
Expected literature

Orienting Literature (final list will be supplied later)

Bigoin-Gagnan, A., & Lacoste-Badie, S. (2018). Symmetry influences packaging aesthetic evaluation and purchase intention. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, IJRDM-06-2017-0123. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1108/​IJRDM-06-2017-0123

Favier, M., Celhay, F., & Pantin-Sohier, G. (2019). Is less more or a bore? Package design simplicity and brand perception: an application to Champagne. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 46, 11–20. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​J.JRETCONSER.2018.09.013

Clement, J., Kristensen, T., & Grønhaug, K. (2013). Understanding consumers’ in-store visual perception: The influence of package design features on visual attention. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2). https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.jretconser.2013.01.003

Clement, J., Aastrup, J., & Charlotte Forsberg, S. (2015). Decisive visual saliency and consumers’ in-store decisions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.jretconser.2014.09.002

Gabrielsen, Gorm, Tore Kristensen and Judy Zaichkowsky (2010) Whose design is it anyway Priming designer and shifting preferences International Journal of Market Research Vol 52 No 1 pp.

Huang, G. H., Korfiatis, N., & Chang, C. T. (2018). Mobile shopping cart abandonment: The roles of conflicts, ambivalence, and hesitation. Journal of Business Research, 85, 165–174. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.jbusres.2017.12.008

Kristensen, Tore, Judy Zaichkowsky and Gorm Gabrielsen (2012) How Valuable is a Well crafted Design and name Brand? Recognition and Willingness to Pay Journal of Consumer behavior 11 pp. 44-55

Vartanian, O., Navarrete, G., Chatterjee, A., Fich, L. B., Leder, H., Modroño, C., … Skov, M. (2013). Impact of contour on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architecture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110 Suppl(Supplement 2), 10446–10453. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1073/​pnas.1301227110

Salgado-Montejo, A., Leon, I. T., Elliot, A. J., Salgado, C. J., & Spence, C. (2015). Smiles over Frowns: When Curved Lines Influence Product Preference. Psychology & Marketing, 32(7), 771–781. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1002/​mar.20817

Bar, M., & Neta, M. (2006). Humans Prefer Curved Visual Objects. Psychological Science, 17(8), 645–648.

Tore Kristensen (2016) John Hesketts Contributions to The Business and Economics of Design in Clive Dilnot (ed) Design between Economics and Practice London: Bloomsbury 2016

Last updated on 11-02-2019