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2022/2023  AO-ASTHO1004U  Entrepreneurship in Tourism and Hospitality

English Title
Entrepreneurship in Tourism and Hospitality

Course information

Language English
Course ECTS 5 ECTS
Type Mandatory
Level Master
Duration One Quarter
Start time of the course Second Quarter
Timetable Course schedule will be posted at calendar.cbs.dk
Study board
AO Study Board for cand.soc.
Course coordinator
  • Claudia Eger - Department of Business Humanities and Law
Course lecturers: Claudia Eger, Cathrine Bjørnholt Michaelsen
Main academic disciplines
  • CSR and sustainability
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Philosophy and ethics
Teaching methods
  • Face-to-face teaching
Last updated on 15-11-2022

Relevant links

Learning objectives
Learning objectives:
This course aims to provide students with competences and skills to manage entrepreneurial processes and activities in tourism and hospitality which take into consideration sustainable, ethical and diversity dimensions. By the end of the course, students should be able to:
  • Analyze entrepreneurial processes, in particular in relation to the course areas of sustainability, business ethics and diversity management in tourism and hospitality.
  • Use the concepts and tools seen in the course to identify the elements that need to be considered to develop and strengthen entrepreneurial initiatives.
  • Demonstrate capabilities to design and develop tourism and hospitality entrepreneurial ventures that take into consideration the course areas of sustainability, business ethics and diversity and inclusion.
  • Demonstrate critical thinking abilities to explain and discuss the theoretical and empirical perspectives introduced in the course as a means of evaluating tourism and hospitality services.
Course prerequisites
Undergraduate-level knowledge of the basic principles of management and organisation theory is expected of all students.
Entrepreneurship in Tourism and Hospitality:
Exam ECTS 5
Examination form Oral exam based on written product

In order to participate in the oral exam, the written product must be handed in before the oral exam; by the set deadline. The grade is based on an overall assessment of the written product and the individual oral performance, see also the rules about examination forms in the programme regulations.
Individual or group exam Oral group exam based on written group product
Number of people in the group 2-3
Size of written product Max. 15 pages
Students in groups of 2 must write max. 10 pages.
Students in groups of 3 must write max. 15 pages.
Assignment type Written assignment
Written product to be submitted on specified date and time.
20 min. per student, including examiners' discussion of grade, and informing plus explaining the grade
Grading scale 7-point grading scale
Examiner(s) Internal examiner and external examiner
Exam period Winter
Make-up exam/re-exam
Same examination form as the ordinary exam
Description of the exam procedure

Oral defense: 20 minutes per student.

Course content, structure and pedagogical approach

The course content is theoretical knowledge, empirical cases and practical tools of social, sustainable and/or ethical entrepreneurship which are applied to the tourism and hospitality sectorsThe course is structured according to three main phases of the entrepreneurship innovation process. The first phase focusses on entrepreneurship idea generation, team building and the selection of topics/problems. This first phase comprises lectures centered on theoretical knowledge and tools on sustainable and social entrepreneurship and innovation in the field of tourism and hospitality. It includes a studio-interactive based session on design methods and techniques applied to tourism innovation.  The aim of this first phase is to enable students to establish their teams and begin the design of their entrepreneurial initiative while attaining in-depth knowledge on sustainability in tourism/hospitality. Sustainability perspectives address organizational/business, destinations and consumer aspects. A specific focus of this first phase will be to utilize cases or examples, which include the analysis of one or several digital tourism perspectives.


The second phase of the course provides theoretical perspectives on entrepreneurship business ethics in tourism and hospitality. The four main business ethics perspectives – virtue ethics, deontology, utilitarianism and deconstruction -  provide students with the necessary knowledge to apply ethical considerations to the development of their service innovation. The phase is structured as a series of theoretical lectures with debates and exercises based on exemplary cases of tourism/hospitality entrepreneurship and their ethical dimensions. These cases can examine specific ethical challenges such as discrimination, governance, environment, and profit-making aspects in the tourism sector. The module explores the extent to which ethical principles should or do vary by practice context. In this phase students focus on their service product development and make a business ethics analysis of the process and expected impacts of their service innovation. 


The third phase of the course is centered on entrepreneurship for diversity and inclusion management. This phase theoretical and tool framework focusses on managerial and behavioral aspects of diversity and inclusion applied to tourism and hospitality in a variety of categories such as gender, ethnicity, race or disability. Special emphasis is given to the tourist and demand perspectives. It provides theoretical insights on social stereotyping, prejudice and bias, diversity and inclusion strategies and normativity theory. Students gain competences to analyse diversity and inclusion aspects of different tourism cases and of their tourism service product development. This final phase of the course includes a diversity and entrepreneurship lab with presentations by students on their pilot cases/projects. 


Description of the teaching methods
The pedagogy for the class is, primarily, a combination of lectures with studio-based learning. Using knowledge from assigned readings, lectures and cases, students engage in experimental exercises and group assignments.
Feedback during the teaching period
Students receive peer-to-peer and lecturer feedback in the two interactive studio presentation activities: the design ideation lab in the first phase of the course and the diversity and entrepreneurship lab in the last phase where students present their pilots and their diversity and inclusion analysis.
The course pedagogics combine lectures with interactive exercises and debates and feed-back is also given to the different projects on an ongoing basis.
Student workload
Attending class 22 hours
Preparation 67,5 hours
Exam 48 hours
In total 137,5 hours
Expected literature

This is not final and should be taken as a general orientation: 

The course literature consists of a compendium of articles, book chapters and excerpts.


Baum, T., Cheung, C., Kong, H., Kralj, A., Mooney, S., Thi Thanh, H. N., Ramachandran, S., Ruzic, M. D. & Siow, M. L. (2016). Sustainability and the tourism and hospitality workforce: A thematic analysis. Sustainability, 8, 1–21.


Brown, T. & Wyatt, J. 2010. Design Thinking for Social Innovation. Stanford Social Innovation Review.


Christensen, J. F., Mahler, R., & Teilmann-Lock, S. (2020). GenderLAB: Norm-critical Design Thinking for Gender Equality and Diversity. Organization.  https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1177/​1350508420961528


Costa, C., Bakas, F. E., Breda, Z., Durão, M., Carvalho, I., & Caçador, S. (2017). Gender, flexibility and the 'ideal tourism worker'. Annals of Tourism Research, 64, 64-75. 


Cuddy, A. J., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in experimental social psychology40, 61-149.


Fennell, D. A. (2017). Tourism ethics. Channel View Publications. (one chapter)


Grimwood, B. S., Caton, K., & Cooke, L. (Eds.). (2018). New moral natures in tourism. Routledge. (one chapter)

Hardin, C. D., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The Nature of Implicit Prejudice: Implications for Personal and Public Policy. In E. Shafir (Ed.), The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy (pp. 13–31). Princeton: Princeton University Press.


IDEO: Human Centered Design Toolkit - Method instructions for social entrepreneurs (with detailed method cards). Available via: https:/​​/​​www.designkit.org/​​resources/​​1/​​.


Jamal, T., & Higham, J. (2021). Justice and ethics: towards a new platform for tourism and sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism29(2-3), 143-157.


Jones, C., Parker, M., & Ten Bos, R. (2005). For business ethics. Routledge. (basic reader for the part of business ethics). Literature for the four different theoretical approaches:

  • Virtue Ethics (e.g. excerpts from Aristotle’s Eudemian Ethics and Nichomachean Ethics - plus M. Nussbaum, A. MacIntyre, P. Foot, or chapter in basic reader).
  • Deontology (e.g. excerpts from Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785) - plus J. Rawls, C. Korsgaard or a chapter in basic reader) 
  • Utilitarianism (e.g. excerpts from J. Bentham: An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) and J.S. Mill:Utilitarianism (1863) – plus P. Singer, T. Nagel or chapter in basic reader). 
  • An ethics of “deconstruction” (e.g. excerpts from Derrida and Lévinas  - plus S. Crichtley or chapter in basic reader)


Just, S. N., Risberg, A., & Villeséche, F. (Eds.) (2021). The Routledge Companion to Organizational Diversity Research Methods. Routledge. Routledge Companions in Business, Management and Marketing https:/​/​doi.org/​10.4324/​9780429265716 (one chapter)


Kato, K. (2019). Gender and sustainability–exploring ways of knowing–an ecohumanities perspective. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 939–956.


Lee, E. (2017). Performing colonisation: The manufacture of Black female bodies in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research66, 95-104.


McIntosh, A., & Harris, C. (2018). Representations of hospitality at the special needs hotel. International Journal of Hospitality Management75, 153-159.


Ramanayake, U., Cockburn-Wootten, C., & McIntosh, A. J. (2019). The ‘MeBox’method and the emotional effects of chronic illness on travel. Tourism Geographies, 1-23.


Small, J. (2021). The sustainability of gender norms: women over 30 and their physical appearance on holiday. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-17.


Sparviero, S. 2019. The Case for a Socially Oriented Business Model Canvas: The Social Enterprise Model Canvas. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10(2), 232-251.


Last updated on 15-11-2022