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2023/2024  KAN-CCBLO2301U  Energy Transition for Sustainable Development in Latin America

English Title
Energy Transition for Sustainable Development in Latin America

Course information

Language English
Course ECTS 7.5 ECTS
Type Mandatory (also offered as elective)
Level Full Degree Master
Duration One Semester
Start time of the course Spring
Timetable Course schedule will be posted at calendar.cbs.dk
Study board
Study Board for BSc and MSc in Business, Language and Culture, MSc
Course coordinator
  • Jacobo Ramirez - Department of Management, Society and Communication (MSC)
Main academic disciplines
  • Globalisation and international business
  • International political economy
  • Political Science
Teaching methods
  • Face-to-face teaching
Last updated on 03-07-2023

Relevant links

Learning objectives
  • Define the broad and fundamental concepts underlying energy sources, energy transition/diversification, energy justice and energy policy.
  • Identify and discuss the social, economic, and political implications of energy transitions.
  • Discuss why planning for a sustainable energy transition requires consideration of the economy, education system, businesses, and public needs.
  • Discuss private and public strategies for promoting and implementing green energy investments in Latin American countries.
  • Examine how market forces such as supply and demand, along with their evolution, have a direct impact on the energy sector, businesses, and civil society in Latin America countries.
Energy Transition for Sustainable Development in Latin America:
Exam ECTS 7,5
Examination form Home assignment - written product
Individual or group exam Individual exam
Size of written product Max. 10 pages
Assignment type Case based assignment
Release of assignment The Assignment is released in Digital Exam (DE) at exam start
Duration 24 hours to prepare
Grading scale 7-point grading scale
Examiner(s) One internal examiner
Exam period Summer
Make-up exam/re-exam
Same examination form as the ordinary exam
Course content, structure and pedagogical approach

Many Latin America countries conventionally rely on hydropower and fossil fuels to produce energy. Considering climate change and international agreements such as the Paris agreement, the governments of several such countries are seeking to diversify their energy matrices by incorporating more renewable or green energy from nonconventional sources, including wind (onshore and offshore), solar, biomass and waste, tidal and geothermal. This is known as energy transition or diversification.


To expedite the energy transition, the governments of several Latin America countries have revised their energy policy. Energy policy deals with how a country generates, stores, converts, transports, and distributes energy. However, policies for energy diversification also affect energy supply and demand and may introduce trade-offs with development and environmental goals and therefore with the achievement of international policies such as Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Because the design and implementation of energy policies are critically influenced by factors including the legal system, governmental will for public good, the national economy, and sociocultural aspects of energy sources and use, there is a risk that accelerating an energy transition may contribute to exacerbate the problems of inequality and of fair access to energy, resources, and societal wellbeing that are common to this region.


Multinational enterprises (MNEs) can play a key role in supporting the design and implementation of energy policies for energy transition. In this respect, there are several approaches that aim to provide more sustainable long-term energy solutions in emerging markets by rethinking end-user access and supply. These include bottom-up approaches, collaborative agreements, and the integration of civil society into decision-making processes.


In this course, some of the strategies developed by MNEs and public organizations will be discussed in relation to energy policy in Latin America countries. The theoretical areas covered by the course are, therefore, energy planning and policy, institutional theory, energy democracy, energy justice, environmental justice, energy poverty and governance.

Description of the teaching methods
This course aims to develop students’ skills through individual and collaborative activities designed to promote participation regarding the sharing of opinions, experiences, views, thoughts, and knowledge. The case study approach is the principal teaching-learning strategy.
Through the case study method, students will practise and apply theory and knowledge to real-world problems. Students will collaboratively (in teams) identify and clarify the problems presented, analyse the information found on each case, formulate and evaluate options, and present and defend their recommendations.
The case study method aims to develop students’ critical thinking, information analysis, and problem-solving skills. One of the principal objectives of this learning strategy is that the students assume a key role in the learning process.
Feedback during the teaching period
There will be regular opportunities for student feedback throughout the course, e.g. via class exercises, office hours, and in-class case study discussions, in addition to regular participation and two-way communication in lectures. Students are encouraged to make use of these opportunities to enhance their learning experience. The lecturer will also, where possible, be readily available for a one-to-one dialogue in both lecture breaks and following each lecture session.
Student workload
Lectures 30 hours
Exam and preparation 176 hours
Total 206 hours
Expected literature

Brannstrom, C., Gorayeb, A., de Sousa Mendes, J., Loureiro, C., Meireles, A. J. de A., Silva, E. V. da, Freitas, A. L. R. de, & Oliveira, R. F. de. (2017). Is Brazilian wind power development sustainable? Insights from a review of conflicts in Ceará state. In Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Vol. 67, pp. 62–71). Elsevier Ltd. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.rser.2016.08.047


Carvajal-Romo, G., Valderrama-Mendoza, M., Rodríguez-Urrego, D., & Rodríguez-Urrego, L. (2019). Assessment of solar and wind energy potential in La Guajira, Colombia: Current status, and future prospects. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 36, 100531. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​J.SETA.2019.100531


de Melo, C.A., Jannuzzi, G.D.M., Bajay, S.V., 2016. Nonconventional renewable energy governance in Brazil: lessons to learn from the German experience. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 61, 222–234. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.rser.2016.03.054.


Gómez-Navarro, T., Ribó-Pérez, D., 2018. Assessing the obstacles to the participation of renewable energy sources in the electricity market of Colombia. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 90, 131–141. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.rser.2018.03.015.


Ramirez, J. (2021). Contentious Dynamics Within the Social Turbulence of Environmental (In)justice Surrounding Wind Energy Farms in Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Business Ethics169(3), 387-404. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1007/​s10551-019-04297-3


Ramirez, J., Velázquez, D. A., & Vélez-Zapata, C. (2022). The Potential Role of Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions in Colombia's Areas of Limited Statehood for Energy Diversification towards Governance in Energy Democracy. Energy Policy168, 19. [113135]. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.enpol.2022.113135


Sovacool, B.K., 2021. Clean, low-carbon but corrupt? Examining corruption risks and solutions for the renewable energy sector in Mexico, Malaysia, Kenya and South Africa. Energy Strategy Rev. 38, 100723. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.esr.2021.100723.


Walker, G., Devine-Wright, P., 2008. Community renewable energy: what should it mean? Energy Policy 36, 497–500. https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1016/​j.enpol.2007.10.019.

Last updated on 03-07-2023